Zakat Fitrah Rules and Laws that Muslims Should Know

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Zakat fitrah has provisions and laws that distinguish it from another zakat. Check out the guide to getting to know zakat fitrah more deeply.

Not only fast, but zakat is also an obligation of a Muslim that must be paid at a certain time. One of them is zakat fitrah which is paid during the month of Ramadan.

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Zakat fitrah is the zakat that must be paid for a muzakki (a person who meets the requirements to pay zakat).

Zakat fitrah is mandatory and must be issued once a year during the month of Ramadan before Eid.

In more detail, the payment of zakat fitrah must be made before the Eid prayer takes place.

Zakat Fitrah according to syara ‘, “The giving which is determined in level and applies to every individual Muslim and is fulfilled before Eid prayer and is in tasharuf right according to predetermined ways.” (Al-Nawawi in al-Majmu ‘: 6/103, al-Bahuty in Kasyāfu al-Qina’: 2/245)

Paying zakat fitrah has provisions that you should know, this article aims to provide you with information about matters related to paying zakat fitrah.

Zakat Al-Fitr

Can I pay zakat fitrah in the form of money?

1. The Maliki, Shafi’i, and Hanbali schools agree that zakat fitrah should not be given to zakat recipients in the form of money. They cling to the hadith narrated by Abu Said:

“At the time of the Prophet sallallaahu ala’ihi wasallam, we paid zakat fitrah as much as one sha” of food, and at that time our food was in the form of dates, wheat, grapes, and cheese. ” (Narrated by Muslim, hadith number 985)

In the above hadith, the companions of the Prophet did not pay zakat fitrah except in the form of food. Their habit of issuing zakat fitrah in this way is a strong argument that the assets that must be spent in zakat fitrah must be in the form of food.

2. According to the Hanafi school, zakat fitrah may be paid in the form of money. They are guided by the word of Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala:

“You may never come to virtue (which is perfect) until you spend part of the wealth that you love.” (Ali Imran: 92)

In this verse, Allah commands us to spend some of the treasures we love. The most beloved treasure at the time of the Prophet was in the form of food, while the most loved treasure today is money. Therefore, paying zakat fitrah in the form of money is allowed.

People who are obliged to pay zakat al-Fitr

Whether they are male or female, young or old as long as they fulfill the mandatory requirements for zakat fitrah, they are obliged to pay zakat fitrah. For children, parents can represent the payment.

The conditions that make a person obliged to pay zakat fitrah are as follows:
1. Being Muslim.
2. Having assets that are more than his daily needs for himself and those under dependents on his feast days and nights.
3. There is before sunset on the last day of Ramadan or there are two times between Ramadan and Shawwal even if only for a moment

While the criteria for people who are not obliged to pay zakat fitrah are as follows:

1. People who died before sunset at the end of Ramadan
2. Children born after sunset at the end of Ramadan
3. People who convert to Islam only after sunset at the end of Ramadan
4. The dependents of the wife who just got married after sunset at the end of Ramadan

Zakat Fitrah is given in the form of basic materials

In the Syafi’i school of thought, it is explained that paying zakat fitrah is with staple food, not with money. They stipulate that zakat fitrah with one sho ‘is the staple food. The size is ordered one sho ‘, that is, a measure between 2.157-3.0 kg. While the form of zakat fitrah is the staple food.

Imam Nawawi also said that zakat fitrah is in the form of one sho ‘food … The type is from the staple food, so can cheese according to the strongest opinion. Obligatory that is issued is the staple food of the state food. (Minhajuth Tholibin, 1: 400)

Paying zakat fitrah with money is not allowed as said by Imam Nawawi, “It is not permissible to pay zakat fitrah with qimah (something worth food, for example, money)”.

Meanwhile, Ishaq and Abu Tsaur said, “Paying zakat fitrah with something of the same value (eg money) is not valid except during an emergency.” (Al Majmu’6: 71).

Zakat fitrah must be paid in the form of staple food. Because in Indonesia the staple food is rice, the zakat paid is rice.

Time to Pay Zakat Al-Fitr

Zakat fitrah can be paid at any time during the month of Ramadan. But there are 5 times you need to know when paying zakat fitrah:

1. Compulsory time: The time when zakat fitrah is compulsory is when a person receives part or a little of the Month of Ramadan and a little of Shawwal, or takbiran night.

2. Jawaz Time: This period is when entering the month of Ramadan until before Eid prayer.

3. Suggested Time: This time applies in the morning before leaving for the Eid prayer. This time is very short, so Muslims must be careful if they intend to pay zakat fitrah at this time.

4. Makruh Time: The makruh time for the payment of zakat fitrah takes effect from the end of the Eid prayer until before sunset on the 1st of Shawwal.

5. Time of Haram: Payment of zakat fitrah made after 1 Shawwal is included in the category of haram time. If the payment of zakat fitrah is made during haram, the zakat is considered qadha (being).

In every property you have, there are other people’s rights in it. By spending some of the assets we have for those who deserve it, of course, will purify our assets.

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